Networking TCPIP Protocols | The Five Layer Networking Model

TCPIP Protocols | The Five Layer Networking Model


TCPIP protocols are important components of Networking model that network devices use to communicate with each other. There are bunch of models (i.e. OSI Model) that explain how network devices communicate. In this article we will discuss about How five layer model of tcp/ip protocol interact each other to make the communication happen. Figure bellow we have illustrated the five layer of TCPIP and their services.

TCPIP Protocols | The Five Layer Networking Model | CS School

The Physical Layer | TCPIP Protocols

Physical layer represents the physical infrastructures such as cables radio transmitter that interconnect the computers. This includes the specification for the networking cables and connectors that join the devices together. So physical layer is all about cabling, connectors, and sending signals to network devices.

The Data Link Layer | TCPIP Protocols

Data link layer is responsible for defining a common way of interpreting the signals that physical layer sends so that network devices can communicate. This is the second layer of the model. This also refer as network interface or network access layer. The main protocol that exists in data link layer is Ethernet. Although wireless technologies becoming more and more popular this days. Ethernet defines the physical layer attributes. Beyond this Ethernet standards also define a protocol responsible for getting data to nodes on the same network or single link.

Network Layer

The network Layer in TCPIP also refers to as Internet layer. Because it allows different network to communicate with each other through routers. A collection of networks connected together through routers. This phenomenon is refereed to as Internetwork. The most famous of Internetwork is the Internet. So the Network Layer is responsible for delivering the data across the collection of networks. Read about IP subnetting.

The most important protocol at this layer is IP or Internet Protocol. IP is the heart of the internet and the most smaller network around the world. The network software usually has two categories: Client , and Server. The Client application initiate the request for the data, and the server software answers the requests across the networks.

The Transport Layer

The network layer deliver data to two individual nodes But the Transport layer sorts out which client or server programs will get that data (means it ensures the data get to the right Application). The most common protocol at this layer is TCP or Transmission Control Protocol. UDP or User Datagram Protocol is also an important protocol at this layer.The main deference between two protocols is that TCP ensures reliability but UDP doesn’t.

Application Layer | TCPIP

The Application Layer is the upper most layer in five layer model of TCPIP Protocols. There are lots of protocol in Application Layer which are application specific. For example: HTTP or HTTPS protocol that allows user to brows the web, SMTP protocol allows send or receive email, etc.

So Compared to an allegory, The Physical Layer is like roads and delivery trucks that contain all data signals (delivery packages). The Data Link Layer like a map that instructs how delivery trucks get one intersection to the next over and over. The Network Layer Identifies which path should be chosen to get from source A to destination B. The Transport Layer is Like a delivery driver who knows how to knock the right door. Eventually the Application Layer is the contents of the delivery packages itself.

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